How Much Water To Drink Per Kg Of Body Weight Nutrition and Food

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Nutrition and Food

“Nutrition is the process of consuming nutrients from the foods you eat.”

Types of nutrition

• Carbohydrates –

Carbohydrates are energy-giving nutrients and our main source of energy. They are easily digested and broken down into glucose, which the body uses to carry out its many functions. The body receives 4 calories per 1 gram of carbohydrates consumed.

Carbohydrates are grouped into

simple carbohydrates (sugar), complex carbohydrates (fibre) and starch.

and based on the glycemic index it is grouped into Low, Moderate and High

Glycemic index measures how high and how quickly blood sugar levels change after eating carbohydrates. The higher the glycemic index, the higher the rise in blood sugar and the longer it takes to return to normal. For a healthy diet, it is best to focus on foods with a low glycemic index, and it also depends on the physical work. Foods with a high glycemic index have been linked to increased risks of heart disease and diabetes.

Carbohydrate needs in our diet:

Carbohydrates should make up 45% – 65% of the calories in your diet, which is about 225g – 325g of carbohydrates for a person on a 2000-calorie diet.

Healthy and unhealthy sources of carbohydrates in our food:

The healthiest sources of carbohydrates are unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans.

Unhealthy sources of carbohydrates include white bread, cakes, soda and other highly processed or refined foods. These items contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.

• Fats –

Fats are an essential part of the diet. One of the sources of energy and important in relation to fat-soluble vitamins.

1 gram of fat provides 37 kJ (9 kcal) of energy. Foods that contain a lot of fat provide a lot of energy.

There are different types of fat, including saturated fat and unsaturated fat.

Saturated fat is usually solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fat is liquid.

A high intake of saturated or trans fatty acids can have negative effects on health.

Foods with polyunsaturated fats are essential for good health and general health. Which is found in fish and shellfish such as tuna, mackerel and salmon, as well as nuts and rapeseed and linseed oils.

• Fiber –

The fibrous indigestible part of our diet is essential for the health of the digestive system.

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate. Although most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules and instead passes through the body undigested. Fiber helps regulate the body’s use of sugars and helps keep hunger and blood sugar in check.

Fiber should make up at least 5% of your daily calorie intake. Children and adults need at least 20 to 30 grams of fiber per day for good health by consuming 2,000 calories daily. Fiber comes in two flavors, both beneficial for health:

• Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, can help lower glucose levels as well as help lower blood cholesterol.

• Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, can help food move through your digestive system, promote regularity and help prevent constipation.

• Minerals – Minerals are inorganic substances and essential nutrients that are needed in small amounts to keep you healthy. Minerals do not give you energy or calories, but it is involved and helps in the formation of bones and teeth. People have different requirements, depending on their age, gender, physiological state (e.g. pregnancy) and sometimes their state of health. Some minerals are needed in larger quantities than others, eg calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride. Others are needed in smaller amounts and are sometimes called trace minerals, e.g. iron, zinc, iodine, fluorine, selenium and copper.

Protein – Proteins are made by combining smaller amino acids. Proteins in the diet are known as macronutrients and contribute energy (calories) to the body. There are 20 amino acids that are used to build proteins.

As all cells and tissues contain protein, it is therefore important for the growth and repair of muscles and other body tissues. Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block in bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood.

Each gram of protein contains 4 calories. Reference nutrient intake (RNI) is set at 0.75 g of protein per kg body weight per day for adults.

Sources of protein include meat products (hamburger, fish, chicken), dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese), eggs, tofu, lentils and soy milk.

Vitamins – Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts to support normal physiological function. Vitamins do not give you calories or energy, but help you stay healthy.

There are two types of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble.

Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, biotin and folate. They are not stored in large quantities in the body, and anything extra is lost through your urine.

Water- and fat-soluble vitamins play important roles in many chemical processes in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K, and they can be stored in your body. High amounts of fat-soluble vitamins are not recommended, as these can cause health problems.

• Water – Water contains zero calories and is not a source of fat, protein or carbohydrates. Although pure water contains no additional nutrients. Water is a nutrient in itself that helps every cell in your body function properly as a vehicle for transporting other nutrients because 60 percent of the human body is made up of water.

• Water regulates body fluids

• Water helps digestion and makes you feel full (so you eat less)

• Water prevents muscle fatigue and dehydration

• Water supports the kidneys’ process of ridding the body of toxins

To meet the Institute of Medicine’s water intake recommendations, men should drink about 13 cups of non-alcoholic fluids a day, while women should drink about 9 cups.

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